|Title||Integral Water Treatment Plant Design: From Particle Size to Plant Performance|
|Publication Type||Book Chapter|
|Year of Publication||1980|
|Authors||Lawler DF, O'Melia CR, Tobiason JE|
|Book Title||Particulates in Water: Characterization, Fate, Effects, and Removal|
|Series Volume||Advances in Chemistry Series No. 189|
|Publisher||American Chemical Society|
Particle concentration and size distribution in raw water have extensive and complex effects on the performance of individual treatment units (flocculator, sedimentation tank, and filter) and on the overall performance of water treatment plants. Mathematical models of each treatment unit were developed to evaluate the effects of various raw water characteristics and design parameters on plant performance. The flocculation and sedimentation models allow wide particle size distributions to be considered. The filtration model is restricted to homogeneous suspensions but does permit evaluation of filter ripening. The flocculation model is formulated to include simultaneous flocculation by Brownian diffusion and fluid shear, and the sedimentation model is constructed to consider simultaneous contacts by Brownian diffusion and differential settling. The predictions of the model are consistent with results in water treatment practice.