|Title||The effect of ozonation on natural organic matter removal by alum coagulation|
|Publication Type||Journal Article|
|Year of Publication||2007|
|Authors||Bose P, Reckhow DA|
|Keywords||Alum coagulation, NOM, Ozonation|
Natural organic matter (NOM) was extracted from a moderately colored, eutrophic surface water source (Forge Pond, Granby, MA), and fractionated into quasi-homogeneous fractions. Fulvic acid (FA) and hydrophilic neutrals (HN) were the two most abundant NOM fractions that were isolated. Adsorption affinity of the isolated NOM fractions on preformed aluminum hydroxide flocs increased with increase in specific organic charge of the fractions, except for the two most highly charged fractions, FA and hydrophilic acids (HAA), which showed less adsorption affinity than expected based on their specific organic charge. Prior ozonation of FA and HN fractions resulted in a decline and an increase, respectively, in their adsorption affinity on aluminum hydroxide surface. Prior ozonation of Forge Pond raw water resulted in a progressive decline in dissolved organic carbon (DOC) removal by alum coagulation with increase in ozone dose. It appeared that ozone applied to raw water reacted preferentially with the humic fraction of NOM, resulting in the detrimental effects of ozonation on subsequent NOM removal by alum coagulation being magnified. Forge Pond raw water was pre-coagulated to remove humic substances. Ozonation of the pre-coagulated water demonstrated the beneficial effects of ozonation on the removal of non-humic NOM through alum coagulation. A strategy for staged coagulation with intermediate ozonation was proposed for waters containing both humic and non-humic NOM for maximum DOC and specific UV absorbance at 254 nm (SUVA) removal.