|Title||Effect of advance yield markings and symbolic signs on vehicle-pedestrian conflicts: Field evaluation|
|Publication Type||Journal Article|
|Year of Publication||2013|
|Authors||Samuel S, Romoser M, Gerardino L, Hamid M, Gómez R, Knodler J.Michael A, Collura J, Fisher DL|
|Journal||Transportation Research Record: Journal of the Transportation Research Board|
The Commonwealth of Massachusetts has made walkable communities a priority. Pedestrian safety is key to the success of this objective. Pedestrians are at especially high risk when traversing unsignalized, marked crosswalks located either midblock or at T-intersections, especially when a vehicle adjacent to the driver is blocking the view of a crossing pedestrian. Several treatments have been proposed to reduce crashes at such crosswalks in such situations. Two experiments were conducted in the town of Greenfield, Massachusetts, to assess the effectiveness of advance yield markings on drivers' scanning for pedestrians and to study their yielding behavior. Advance yield markings consist of a line of white triangles 20 to 50 ft in advance of the crosswalk together with a sign indicating that drivers should yield at the markings. The first experiment was an observational one involving a staged pedestrian attempting to use the crosswalk, and the second experiment was an in-vehicle field study conducted on an open road course in Greenfield. Results demonstrated that advance yield markings coupled with the vacating of parking spots immediately adjacent to the crosswalk to clear the line of sight of approaching vehicles improved yielding compliance. In addition, when advance yield markings and warning signs were present, drivers approaching the crosswalk were more likely to scan areas to the sides of the roadway at crosswalks in anticipation of a pedestrian's entering the crosswalk.