|Title||Comparison of disinfection byproduct formation from chlorine and alternative disinfectants|
|Publication Type||Journal Article|
|Year of Publication||2007|
|Authors||Hua G, Reckhow DA|
|Keywords||Chloramines, Chlorine, Chlorine dioxide, Disinfection byproducts, Ozone, Total organic halogen|
Seven diverse natural waters were collected and treated in the laboratory under five oxidation scenarios (chlorine, chloramine, both with and without preozonation, and chlorine dioxide). The impact of these disinfectants on the formation of disinfection byproducts was investigated. Results showed that preozonation decreased the formation of trihalomethanes (THMs), haloacetic acids (HAAs) and total organic halogen (TOX) for most waters during postchlorination. A net increase in THMs, HAAs and TOX was observed for a water of low humic content. Either decreases or increases were observed in dihaloacetic acids and unknown TOX (UTOX) as a result of preozonation when used with chloramination. Chloramines and chlorine dioxide produced a higher percentage of UTOX than free chlorine. They also formed more iodoform and total organic iodine (TOI) than free chlorine in the presence of iodide. Free chlorine produced a much higher level of total organic chlorine (TOCl) and bromine (TOBr) than chloramines and chlorine dioxide in the presence of bromide.