|Title||Multi-scale modeling of grouted sand behavior|
|Publication Type||Journal Article|
|Year of Publication||2008|
|Authors||Hicher P-Y, Chang CS, Dano C|
|Journal||International Journal of Solids and Structures|
|Keywords||Cementation damage, Grouted sand, Microstructural model, Stress–strain relationship|
The mechanical properties of sand: stiffness, cohesion and, to a less extent, friction angle can be increased through the process of grouting. A constitutive model adapted for cohesive-frictional materials from a homogenization technique which allowed us to integrate constitutive relations at the grain level has been developed to obtain constitutive equations for the equivalent continuous granular medium. A representative volume was obtained by mobilizing particle contacts in all orientations. Thus, the stress–strain relationship could be derived as an average of the behavior of these local contact planes. The local behavior was assumed to obey a stress-dependent elastic law and Mohr–Coulomb’s plastic law. The influence of the cement grout was modeled by means of adhesive forces between grains in contact, which were added to the contact forces created by an external load. The intensity of these adhesive forces is a function of nature and amount of grout present inside the material and can be reduced due to a damage mechanism at the grain contact during loading. In this paper, we present several examples of simulation which show that the model can reproduce with sufficient accuracy the mechanical improvement induced by grouting as well as the damage of the grain cementation during loading.