|Title||Chlorination of humic materials: byproduct formation and chemical interpretations|
|Publication Type||Journal Article|
|Year of Publication||1990|
|Authors||Reckhow DA, Singer PC, Malcolm RL|
|Journal||Environmental Science & Technology|
Ten aquatic humic and fulvic acids were isolated and studied with respect to their reaction with chlorine. Yields of TOX, chloroform, trichloroacetic acid, dichloroacetic acid, dichloroacetonitrile, and l,l,l-trichloropropanone were measured at pH 7 and 12. Humic acids produced higher concentrations than their corresponding fulvic acids of all byproducts except l,l,l-trichloropropanone. Chlorine consumption and byproduct formation were related to fundamental chemical characteristics of the humic materials. A statistical model was proposed for activated aromatic content based on 13C NMR and base titration data. The values estimated from this model were found to be well correlated with chlorine consumption. Specific byproduct formation was related to UV absorbance, nitrogen content, or the activated aromatic content.