|Title||Characterization of filter media MnOx[s] surfaces and Mn removal capability|
|Publication Type||Journal Article|
|Year of Publication||2010|
|Authors||Islam AA, Goodwill JE, Bouchard R, Tobiason JE, Knocke WR|
|Journal||Journal American Water Works Association|
Manganese (Mn) control is a significant challenge for utilities, and uptake by oxide-coated media is one commonly used control method. However, there has been only a small amount of research documenting the process and characterization of the oxide-coated media responsible for Mn uptake. This article presents a standard technique to evaluate the Mn uptake capability of filter media and provides increased understanding of the process of Mn uptake by oxide-coated filter media. The Mn uptake capability of filter media can be assessed by a laboratory protocol. Mn uptake capability does not increase consistently because Mn coating levels increase beyond 5-15 mg Mn/g media. Mn oxide coatings can develop readily on both anthracite and sand media and will remain robust for at least six months with no prefilter chlorination. However, Mn release may be a concern. The results of this study will help utility engineers and operators optimize and understand the Mn oxide-coated media process for Mn removal and control.